Once upon a time in Texas, there was a girl with an appetite and a dream...



Pronunciation: fa-lahn-GEE-na (That's a hard "G.")

This is probably the white wine that was most ubiquitous in my Ischia-Napoli world. It's what came in carafes as the house wines, and it's what could also be found in an average to fancy bottle. A cold condensation on a hand-painted pitcher of Falanghina next to a hot pizza, screaming of basil, milk, and tomatoes would melt that Summer sun right out the sky.

Living most of the time in Ischia, Falanghina was still the go-to white. I say this because Biancolella and Forastera are the varieties indigenous to the island, but the island just isn't that big. Not big enough to quench the thirsty, fish-eating masses anyway.

So here we are back in Texas, and my heart calls out for the real thing. My DoBianchi brought home a shiny white ball of Mozzarella di Bufala and a bottle of Cantine del Taburno Falanghina, but, alas, I am still searching for an unoaked/unmalo-ed/non-acidified yet certified stateside version. I won't give up. I can survive on the fumes of my memories just a little longer.

Until I find it, don't cry for me Falanghina, the truth is you never left me.

Text below adapted from: Del Canuto, Francesco et al., Il vino italiano, vitigni, enografia, e grastronomia regionale, Associazione Italiana Sommeliers (Bertani & C.), Milano, 2010 (2002), fourth edition.

Alternative Names: Fallanghina, Falanghina verace, Uva Falerna, Falerno Veronese, and Biancuzita

Historical Notes: This grape variety has ancient origins and was probably cultivated in Sannio going back to the Roman Era. The first documentation of this variety, however, is from 1825, even though it was frequently confused with other grapes.

Production Zone:
Falanghina is most widely produced in Campania. It finds its best expression in the area of Falerno del Massico, the island of Procida, Campi Flegrei, and Sannio.

Characteristics: average to small leaves that are smooth and wedge-shaped and usually have 3 lobes, sometimes 5, with green veins and red streaks; The clusters are compact and cylindrical with one small wing. The berries are round and covered in bloom. The skins are thick with a yellow-gray hue.

Ripening: second half of September

Productivity: average

Vigor: good

Wine made from Falanghina has a straw-yellow color, tending toward golden with an intense and fruity nose. It usually has softer acid and a pleasant, persistent finish.

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Falerno del Massico DOC

The legend** goes that Bacchus descended one day in disguise upon the slopes of Mount Massico where he met a poor and simple farmer of the surname Falerno. He did not hesitate to offer his unexpected guest the best from his pantry. Moved by the farmer's generosity, Bacchus transformed his cup of milk into wine. Falerno drank deeply and fell into a long sleep. Upon his awakening, his land was covered in blooming vineyards.

The first Falerno del Massico was made with Falanghina and was historically praised by the likes of Pliny, who declared it the best wine of his day. Others such as Virgil, Cicero, and Catullus held the wine in high regard as did the Czar of Russia and Gustav of Sweden.

Text below adapted from: Del Canuto, Francesco et al., Il vino italiano, panorama vitivinicolo attraverso le denominazioni di origine, Associazione Italiana Sommeliers (Bertani & C.), Milano, 2010 (2002), fourth edition.

Recognized as DOC 1/3/89

Production Zone: includes the townships of Carinola, Cellole, Falciano del Massico, Mondragone and Sessa Aurunca, all in the province of Caserta.

Yield: max 10 tons per hectare

Aging Potential:
whites 1-2 years, reds 5-6 years

Grape Varieties: WHITE Falanghina, 100%; minimum alcohol 11%
RED Aglianico 60-80%, Piedirosso 20-40%, Primitivo and/or Barbera max 20%, minimum alcohol 12.5, minimum AGING 14 months;
The wine can also have a varietal declaration only for Primitivo. In this case, it must be written on the label and the blend must be a minimum of 85% Primitivo with a maximum of 15% Aglianico, Piedirosso, and/or Barbera, minimum alcohol 13%, minimum AGING 14 months.

Other Types
Riserva: For Rosso and Primitivo, minimum alcohol 12.5%; must age for 26 months
Vecchio: can be used interchangeably with "Riserva," but only for Primitivo.

In Falerno del Massico, which is close to the dormant Roccamonfina volcano and the solid calcerous terrain of Mount Massico, there is a movement toward softer wines. This is true of the white and red based on Primitivo.

If properly vinified, Falerno del Massico rosso can be soft and structured with a complex aroma. These qualities make it particularly suited for meat dishes and aged cheeses.

Wine made primarily from Primitivo is highly structured as well, but extremely extracted and high in alcohol. This makes the wines perfect pairings for roasted meats, as well as meats prepared with sauces.

The whites are lighter and more acidic and are perfect with pasta and tomatoes, as well as other simple and aromatic dishes.

**Something fun I found whilst poking around the internets. I had to share it.

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Just an additional note on the history of the grape...as stated below, it is widely believed to come from the Pinot or Greco family, but some sources conclude otherwise. Some maintain that it comes from a wild native variety domesticated by the Etruscans living in Capua (a city in the province of Caserta). It has similar etymological origins as some of the primitive Lambruscos (Aspro and Cruet) and was cultivated in the same way (vines trained to live supports such as trees, in the case of Asprinio, poplar trees) as many of the Lambruscos from the Po River Valley. So there.

Text below adapted from: Del Canuto, Francesco et al., Il vino italiano, vitigni, enografia, e grastronomia regionale, Associazione Italiana Sommeliers (Bertani & C.), Milano, 2010 (2002), fourth edition.

Photo borrowed from YoungandFoodish.com (there's another great story about the alberata aversana, please click!)

Alternative Names: Olivese, Ragusano, Ragusano Bianco, Asprino, Uva Asprina

Historical Notes: Asprinio is an ancient grape variety that is believed to come from the Pinot or Greco family

Cultivation Zone: widely planted in the province of Caserta where excellent results are achieved, especially if the vines are trained ad alberata.**

Characteristics: average to small leaf that is smooth with 5 lobes; light green in color; Grape bunches are average in size, compact, long and conical, can produce or not produce wings. The grapes are on the larger side of average with a grey-green color and have an abundant bloom coating.

Ripening: end of September to beginning of October

Productivity: highly productive

Vigor: excellent

**Please click here to see the previous post which explains in greater detail what this type of vine training is.

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Aversa DOC

Aversa is one of the two places in Italy most famous for its Mozzarella di Bufala (Caserta is the other). And don't I know it. I ate my weight in the precious stuff during my time living between Ischia and Naples. There is absolutely nothing that can compare to a so-fresh-it's-warm ball of true water buffalo mozzarella oozing with milk. The milk of said beast is particularly high in fat, which means it is particularly delicious. No imitator can be tolerated after being ruined on the real thing. (Don't even try, upscale grocery store!)

Neapolitans are so proud (SO. PROUD.) to call this one of their many regional gifts to the world. A slice the size of a ham steak is but a snack, incapable of adding girth to the thighs of anyone and in fact, is nothing less than a nutritional miracle. Just ask any mamma italiana.

"A taste is worth more than 1000 words." Sure is.

Mozzarella in Carrozza (mozzarella in a carriage) is the name of a dish prepared like this: put a generous slice of fresh mozzarella between two slices of bread, dip it in flour and egg, then pan-fry. One can only imagine the crunch which gives way to the soft, fragrant and gooey interior. Mamma mia! And it just begs for a simple glass of high-acid, Aversa DOC. Enjoy.

Text below adapted from: Del Canuto, Francesco et al.,
Il vino italiano, panorama vitivinicolo attraverso le denominazioni di origine, Associazione Italiana Sommeliers (Bertani & C.), Milano, 2010 (2002), fourth edition.

Recognized as DOC 8/12/93

Production Zone: includes the townships of Aversa, Carinaro, Casal di Principe, Casaluce, Casapesanna, Cesa, Frignano, Gricignano di Aversa, Lusciano, Orta di Atella, Parete, San Cipriano d'Aversa, San Marcellino, Sant'Arpino, Succivo, Teverola, Trentola-Ducenta, Villa di Briano e Villa Literno, all in the province of Caserta; Giuliano in Campania, Qualiano e Sant'Antimo in the province of Naples

Yield: max 12 tons per hectare

Grape Variety: Asprinio, min 85%

Minimum alcohol: 10.5%

Aging potential: on average, 1 year

Other types
Spumante: made with 100% Asprinio with a minimum alcohol of 11%. In the case of vineyards trained using the "alberata aversana" style of vine training (an environmental and cultural contribution of the appellation), the yield cannot exceed 4 kilograms of grapes/sq meter of wall and 240 kg of grapes per plant, with a maximum number 50 plants per hectare
Alberata or Vigneti ad alberata: wines made in the Aversa appellation using grapes obtained from vineyards planted using the alberata aversana method must include Alberata or Vigneti ad Alberata on the label.
Also, Asprinio can precede the name of the appellation on the label, for example, Asprinio di Aversa DOC

The production area, which includes 22 townships in what used to be Liburia,** is identified by its Asprinio vineyards trained to poplar trees, which act as stakes or supports for the vines. This method of pruning creates large green walls that can reach up to 15 meters [roughly 45 ft] in height. This white grape variety, by name, reveals its distinction among other grapes--its intense acidity. If great care isn't taken in the vineyards and the winery, the acidity can become too aggressive.

The problem with most producers of this wine is that they source their grapes from growers and are therefore unable to intervene in the vineyards to help improve the quality of the end product.

This unique style vine training is of Etruscan origin. Although it is striking to behold, pruning is extremely difficult at the tops of the plants.

One producer of note is using canopy pruning, with more plants per hectare and lower grape yields. The result is a wine that, perhaps, doesn't reflect the tipicity of the grape variety in that the wine is less acidic. (In the debate over typicity vs. defect we risk a never-ending argument...) Without a doubt though, the wine is more enjoyable because it's softer. It is in this vein that the producer is aging some if his wine in 7, 10, and 15 hL oak barrels for 1 year. [Here we go again with the barriques!]

Although only humble results are obtained using the Charmat method, sparkling wine made from Asprinio is delightful as an aperitif. Still wine from the appellation pairs well with seafood salad, fish dishes, pizzas, calzones, and the famous mozzarella in carozza. [See intro]

Asprinio is also used in the production of passito (dried-grape wine) in the appellation Terre al Volturno IGT.

**Liburia is the ancient name for the area known today as Terra di Lavoro (Southern Lazio and Northern Campania). The Latin name is derived from the word Leborini who were an ancient tribe that inhabited the area. The modern name, Terra di Lavoro means "land of work."

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Irpinia DOC

As long as I lived in Campania, I was always intrigued by the areas of Irpinia and Sannio. They are rich with an ancient history of Oscans, Samnites, and Hirpini that I find fascinating. The mountains of Irpinia, set with pine trees and chestnuts are ones that I hope to have to opportunity to explore in depth sometime in the future with my DoBianchi.

Text below adapted from: Del Canuto, Francesco et al., Il vino italiano, panorama vitivinicolo attraverso le denominazioni di origine, Associazione Italiana Sommeliers (Bertani & C.), Milano, 2010 (2002), fourth edition.

DOC recognized 9/13/05

Production Zone: includes all areas adequate for grape growing in the province of Avellino.
Subzone: Campi Taurasini: includes all areas in the townships of Taurasi, Bonito, Castelfranci, Castelvetere sul Calore, Fontanarosa, Lapio, Luogosano, Mirabella Eclano, Montefalcione, Montemarano, Montemiletto, Paternopoli, Pietradifusi, Sant'Angelo all'Esca, San Magno sul Calore, Torre le Nocelle, Venticano, Gesualdo, Villamaina, Torella dei Lombardi, Grottaminarda, Melito Irpino, Nusco, and Chiusano San Domenico

Grape Varieties
WHITE: Greco 40-50%, Fiano 40-50%, others permitted up to 20%
[Varieties permitted on label are as follows]: (min 85%) Coda di Volpe, Falanghina, Fiano, Greco
Other types: Passito from Greco and Fiano with a minimum of 7 months aging and alcohol at 12.5%; Classic method** Spumante using Fiano and Greco with a min alcohol of 11.5% is released after 20 months from October 1st of the most recent harvest year.
RED: Aglianico min 70%, others permitted up to 30%
[Varieties permitted on label are as follows]: (min 85%) Aglianico, Sciascinoso, Piedirosso
Campi Taurasini: min 85% Aglianico
Other types: Rosato and novello (same as rosso); Passito and fortified made from a min 85% Aglianico, with a minimum of 7 months and 11 months aging, respectively

Aging Potential: whites 1-2 years; rosato, spumante, and novello 1 year; reds, passitos, and fortified 2-5 years

Campania has been awarded with a new DOC, the 17th in the region and the only DOC in the province of Avellino. Irpinia has always been a land rich in vineyards. The appellation is divided by the Apennine mountain range that runs from the Tyrrhenian Sea to the Adratic Sea. Its land possesses a unique, mineral-rich volcanic soil. Because of this, and the climate which varies from one zone to the next, from its origins this appellation has been capable of producing the great wines long exalted by historians and poets alike.

Irpinia DOC, beyond having the task of raising awareness of the viticultural value of the appellation, also serves as an umbrella DOC for the three already recognized DOCGs of Taurasi, Greco di Tufo, and Fiano di Avellino.


**Classic/Traditional Method (Metodo Classico, in Italian) or Methode Champenoise is the process by which fermented wine is placed in a bottle with added yeasts and sugar to induce a second fermentation. As the wine ferments, carbon dioxide is created. It is dissolved throughout the bottle and escapes, creating bubbles when the bottle is opened. This is quite labor intensive and results in a wine with much more complexity than one created using the Charmat Method (wherin 2nd fermentation takes place in large vats).

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Text below translated from: Del Canuto, Francesco et al., Il vino italiano, vitigni, enografia, e grastronomia regionale, Associazione Italiana Sommeliers (Bertani & C.), Milano, 2010 (2002), fourth edition.

Alternative names:
Aglianicone, Guanico, Gesualdo, Uva Aglianica, Ellenico, Uva Nera
Clones: Femmina, Mascolino, San Severino, Zerpuloso

Aglianico is relatively homogenous but two basic families exist, one grown in the Taurasi area and the other grown in the area of Aglianico del Vulture. [Pronounced VOOL'-too-ray]

Historical notes:
this grape variety originated in Magna Grecia, where it was already widely planted. The name is a corruption of ellenikon in Hellenic, which became Aglianico.**[!]

Cultivation Zone: Basilicata, Campania; Some is found in Apulia and Molise as well.

Characteristics: The leaf is smooth with 5 lobes that are opaque and dark green. The bunches are medium-sized, compact, cylindrical and coned. The grapes are round with thick skin. They have an intense blue color and a thick coating of bloom.***

Ripening: late, October 15th-November 10th

Productivity: abundant and consistent

Vigor: good

Aglianico produces wine with a ruby color with hints of garnet. With age, it tends toward brick red. The nose is intense with pronounced aromas of cherry preserves, plums, almonds, violets, spices, and suede. The flavor is rich and tannic, given to good structure and a very long finish.


**If you missed it before, here's Jeremy P's research on the real origins of the grape name. Debunking happening daily over at DoBianchi!

***Bloom (pruina in Italian, in case you were curious) is the powdery substance on the skin of a grape. It contains protective waxes, bacteria, and yeast cells that are native to the vineyard. This substance is also found on the skin of blueberries.

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Taurasi DOCG

Even though I lived in Campania for nearly four and a half years, I didn't get to drink a ton of Taurasi. It was relatively expensive and I lived a pauper-ish existence. I'm sure that I've had more than even your average Northern Italian, but still, I am far from an expert. I did drink lots of Aglianico (Sannio DOC, Irpinia DOC, Taburno DOC, many IGTs) and Piedirosso though, but we'll get to that soon.

Here's what my DoBianchi said about the origins of the name Taurasi:
Btw, the toponym Taurasi is believed to be derived from the pre-Roman (probably Etruscan) taur[o] meaning mountain. One of the earliest documents mentioning the ancient village of Taurasi dates back to the 14th-century and there is also a mention inscribed in the sarcophagus of Scipio Barbatus (died 280 B.C.E.). The village sits above the valley of the Calore river at 398 meters a.s.l., hence the name.

That's so hot.

Text below translated from: Del Canuto, Francesco et al., Il vino italiano, panorama vitivinicolo attraverso le denominazioni di origine, Associazione Italiana Sommeliers (Bertani & C.), Milano, 2010 (2002), fourth edition.

DOCG recognized 3/11/93

Production Zone: including the townships of (only the the hilly areas with adequate sun exposure, and with the absolute exclusion of humid valley floors and shaded portions of land) Bonito, Castelfranci, Castelvetere sul Calore, Fontanarosa, Lapio, Luogosano, Mirabella Eclano, Montefalcione, Montemarano, Montemiletto, Paternopoli, Pietradefusi, Sant'Angelo all'Esca, San Mango sul Calore, Taurasi, Torre le Nocelle and Venticano, all in the province of Avellino.

Yield: Max 10 tons per hectare

Grape Variety: Aglianico**, min 85% [It does not list others permitted for the balance, but with a little research I've found that any non-aromatic red variety "permitted and recommended by the province of Avellino" is allowed. I imagine that there is Piedirosso, Barbera, maybe some Sciascinoso and probably others, but it can be 100% Aglianico.]

Minimum alcohol: 12%

Required Aging: minimum 37 months

Aging potential: on average 8-10 years***

Other types: Reserve--with a minimum alcohol content of 12.5% and required aging of 49 months

Excellent wine production in this area is a result of the perfect balance between climate, grape variety, and volcanic soil. Low yields and high-density planting along with attention in the vineyards and use of barrel aging guarantee a high-quality product. Most importantly, there are some emergent winemakers who, with a great deal of professionalism, are exploiting the great potential of Aglianico in this appellation.

The color of Taurasi, when released, is an intense garnet with a nose rich in red fruit preserves, black pepper, liquorice, minerality, and tobacco. Very structured with a long finish, this wine is dry and balanced with pronounced tannins. Taurasi goes well with grilled meats and roasts as along with wild game. It is particularly suited for wild boar and aged cheeses.

In my next post I will translate the entry for aglianico from volume 2A of this series. This book lists all of the grape varieties of Italy alphabetically, with an informative entry on each. Woohoo!

**PLEASE read DoBianchi's scholarly post on the origins of the name "aglianico." Very interesting stuff. That's my man!

***I know that many a Taurasi out there can gracefully age for much longer. I believe that the authors of this book are referring to an average example of the wine and its very average potential. I am but a translator.

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Greco di Tufo DOCG

Greco di Tufo is one of my fave whites from Southern Italy. It's fresh and zesty with minerality, which equals, in my book, absolutely delightful wine. Unfortunately, it's hard to find clean wines from Campania, at least in Texas. Maybe that will change. A girl can dream.

Text below translated from: del Canuto, Francesco et al., Il vino italiano, panorama vitivinicolo attraverso le denominazioni di origine, Associazione Italiana Sommeliers (Bertani & C.), Milano, 2010 (2002), fourth edition.

Recognized as a DOCG 7/18/03

image taken from http://caudium.myblog.it

Production Zone:
including the townships of Altavilla Irpina, Chianche, Prato di Principato Ultra, Montefusco, Ptruro Irpino, Santa Paolina, Tufo and Torioni, all in the province of Avellino

Yield: max 10 tons per hectare

Grape Varieties:
greco; coda di volpe is allowed up to 15%

Minimum alcohol: 11.5%

Aging Potential: within 1-3 years

The production zone for Greco di Tufo is in the heart of Irpinia.** In this region one finds sulfur mines, tufo quarries, and a land of vineyards alternating with forests.

Greco di Tufo is an appellation that is constantly improving with more modern techniques in the vineyard and in the winery. A bit of time spent in barrique will can also make this a wine of great potential.***

A young Greco di Tufo pairs well with raw shellfish, baked fish, dried pasta with vegetable sauces, spaghetti with squid ink or shellfish, and flavorful side dishes such as eggplants and broccoli raab (HAY!). When the wine is more mature and rich in personality, it can be paired with grilled mackerel, fish stew, and generally more elaborate dishes. The spumante, made in the Martinotti (Charmat) method, is also very pleasant, aromatic, and interesting.

**The name of the region, Irpinia, is taken from hirpus, the Oscan word for wolf. The Oscans were from Umbria and their language was the language of Southern Italy under the Roman republic. I pretty much ripped this from Wikipedia, so if you find this history as fascinating as I do, just mosey on over to the site to dig deeper. Or just ask my DoBianchi, he probably already has a doctorate in it.

***You must know that this was difficult to translate. I mean, as in gritting my teeth over the woodiness of it all. I, in no way support beating greco over the head with barrique and malolactic fermentation, but we all know that it is a trend in Italia (that NOT all follow!) to make a wine "important" by aging it in wood. You can see old rant here. I hope the trend will pass. Until then, I will.

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Fiano di Avellino DOCG

Before I get into the translation, I just want to mention that I don't like Italian tasting notes. I feel a blog post coming on, but I'll save that for later so that you don't accuse me of editorializing when I said that I wouldn't. Because the descriptors in the text do not convey the complexity of a good Fiano di Avellino, I have to add that I always found an intriguing herbaceous note in the wine reminding me of the pine forests that surround the area. In addition to citrus, there is typically a pronounced minerality. They can also be slightly nutty at times, but only the special ones. Just like us.

Text below translated from: del Canuto, Francesco et al., Il vino italiano, panorama vitivinicolo attraverso le denominazioni di origine, Associazione Italiana Sommeliers (Bertani & C.), Milano, 2010 (2002), fourth edition.

Recognized as a DOCG 8/5/03

Photo from newsposi.it

Production Zone: including the townships of Aiello del Sabato, Atripalda, Avellino, Candida, Capriglia Irpina, Cesinali, Contrada, Forino, Grottolella, Lapio, Manocalzati, Montefredane, Mercogliano, Montefalcione, Monforte Irpino, Ospedaletto d'Alpinolo, Parolise, Pratola Serra, Salza Irpina, San Michele di Serino, San Potito Ultra, Santa Lucia di Serino, Sant'Angelo a Scala, Santo Stefano del Sole, Sorbo Serpico and Summonte, all in the province of Avellino.

Yield: max 10 tons per hectare

Grape Varieties: fiano; also permitted up to 15%: greco bianco, coda di volpe, and/or trebbiano toscano

Minimum alcohol: 11.5%

Aging Potential: 1-4 years

Mention of APIANUM is permitted on the label as a reference to the origins of the grape name.**

Fiano di Avellino, taken from the eponymous grape variety, is one of the most distinguished wines of Campania. With time, the wine acquires depth and softness. Fiano is pale in color with an intense nose of fruit. Its balanced notes of citrus and acidity pair well with dishes such as spaghetti with fresh anchovies, grilled fish, seafood stew, baked fish, pizza, and calzones.

Some producers are late-harvesting as well as creating passitos, some are even using grapes affected with botrytis. These are still rare, but very interesting.

Sparkling wines made from Fiano using the Martinotti (Charmat) method are pleasant and zippy, and are perfect as an aperitif.

**It is commonly believed that the original name for Fiano was Apianum, derived from Vitis Apiana, which was a reference to the high sugar level of the grapes and the bees' attraction to them. (Ape, pronounced "AH-pay" is the Italian word for bee, derived from the Latin "Apis.")
Vitigni d'Italia disputes this, claiming that the actual origin of the word is from Appiano which was a variety of apple grown in Apia (now Lapia) near Avellino. B'oh!

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Just a quick preface: When I begin each region, there will be a map (click on the map to get a better view) with an introduction listing red/white varieties commonly found, plus a list of DOCGs, DOCs, and IGTs. I will do straight translations without (but no promises) editorializing. Just the facts, signora.

Then, I will probably dedicate one post per appellation within the region. It should be straightforward. Here we begin with Campania because I lived there. I am not following the order of the book, but will stick to and finish a region once begun. Here we go! Now it's time to let my inner nerd wear its headgear in public.

Grape Varieties Suited for Cultivation in Campania

White grapes (among the most widely cultivated)
falanghina, malvasia bianca di Candia, trebbiano Toscano, coda di volpe bianca, greco, asprinio bianco, biancolella, and malvasia bianca. Others: bellone, bombino bianco, chardonnay, fenile, forastera, ginestra, guarnaccia, montonico bianco, moscato bianco, pallagrello bianco, pepella, pinot bianco, riesling, riesling italico, ripolo, san lunardo, sylvaner verde, veltliner, and verdeca.
Grey**/Pink Grapes: pinot grigio and traminer aromatico
Red grapes (among the most widely cultivated): aglianico, barbera, sangiovese, piedirosso, montepulciano, merlot, greco nero, primitivo, and ciliegiolo. Others: aglianicone, aleatico, cabernet sauvignon, casavecchia, cesanese comune, lambrusco maestri, malvasia nera, pallagrello nero, pinot nero, sciascinoso, tronto, and uva di troia

The Wines of Campania

DOCG: Fiano di Avellino, Greco di Tufo, Taurasi
DOC: Aglianico del Taburno and Taburno, Aversa, Campi Flegrei, Capri, Castel San Lorenzo, Cilento, Costa d'Amalfi, Falerno del Massico, Galluccio, Guardia Sanframondi or Guardiolo, Irpinia, Ischia, Penisola Sorrentina, Sannio, Sant'Agata de' Goti or Sant'Agata dei Goti, Solopaca, Vesuvio
IGT: Beneventano, Campania, Colli di Salerno, Dugenta, Epomeo, Paestum, Pompeiano, Roccamonfina, Terre di Volturno

Del Canuto, Francesco et al.,
Il vino italiano, panorama vitivinicolo attraverso le denominazioni di origine, Associazione Italiana Sommeliers (Bertani & C.), Milano, 2010 (2002), fourth edition.

**In Italian, as well as other romance languages, red grapes can be referred to as black. So it is common to refer to "in between" grapes as grey as well as pink. For example, pinot grigio/gris (grey pinot) is named as such because its grapes have a brownish-pink skin.

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